Month: April 2020

Led long leg polarity led legs

LED Long Leg Polarity- LED Legs – LED Polarity

Welcome to This is my first article in basic electronics. Stick to my article and you will get the answers for all your question related with LEDs. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

What is LED Long Leg Polarity?

LED long leg polarity how to make simple led circuit

Here is the image of a LED. Can you see, there are 2 pins in this LED. (2 led legs) Also, One pin of the LED is longer than the other one. That longest pin is used to indicate the positive terminal of the LED which is also used to connect with the positive side of the battery. Also, I think this will be the answer to your major problem. But you are new to work with the LEDs, read the complete article and It will give basic knowledge about LEDs. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

What is an LED?

colorful LEDs in the white background LED Long Leg Polarity

Do you know? “LED” stands for “Light Emitting Diode”. That means LED is also a Diode. The diode is a basic circuit component which can allow flowing the current at only one direction. Also, First I will explain how to use a diode in a circuit and after we can go through the LED. Okay, You need to know there is two main components are needed to complete a basic circuit. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

  • The first one is the power source, you need the energy to do any kind of work. also that concept valid in the electronic circuit too. So we supply the energy to the circuit with the form of electrical energy using the batteries, AC line, solar cell or something like that.
  • The second one is the load, Also, This is some kind of component which can do some work using the electrical energy. Ex: LED, resistor, heating coil, etc…

What is the Circuit?

simple circuit diagram with battery and resistor

Here is the image of the simple circuit with a battery as a power supply and a resistor as a load. Also, normally we consider the current is flowing from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery. Also, What happens when we connect the battery in upside down (opposite side) In this circuit? Let’s see about that…

simple circuit diagram with battery and resistor

Okay, now we can see here when the battery placed in the opposite direction and also the current flow is moving in the opposite direction. But when we create a circuit and we need to allow to flow the current flow in only one direction. In that case, the diode is coming to our help. That component (Diode) will keep our circuit current flow at only one direction. Let’s see the diagram for better understand. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

What is the Diode?

compare of a circuit with diode and resistor battery upside down

Here are the diagrams, In the first diagram, we have a diode and a battery with connected to the battery positive terminal with the diode positive terminal. In that kind of circuits are called the “diode forward biasing circuits”. In the second diagram, we have the same circuit but the battery connected with the opposite direction. Also, This kind of situation, the diode is not allowed to flow the current through the circuit. Also, this type of circuits is called the “diode reverse biasing circuits”.

Symbol of the Diode

Now you know about why we use diodes in our circuit?. But we have to know how to represent a diode in a circuit diagram and what kind of information we can get from that symbol. I will explain all the important information you need to know. Okay, here is an image of the real diodes. Watch it and remember this component. Also, This is one of the basic components in the electronics.

types of diode Zener diode Led and normal diode LED Long Leg Polarity

This is a different kind of diodes. I hope now you can identify them easily. Okay, our next step is to identify the diode symbol and how to find the polarity from the symbol.

Symbol (Diode/LED Long Leg Polarity)

Now we all know there is positive and negative terminals are in the diode. When we want to add a diode to the circuit with the forward bias (to allow the current to flow through the circuit), You need to connect the positive side of the diode to positive side of the battery or negative side of the diode to negative side of the battery. To do that, you need to identify the positive and negative terminals in the diode and also the battery. But in the battery, they also marked the positive and negative sides. In the diode, we have to identify the negative terminal with the silver line which is marked on the diode body. But how we can identify the polarity of the terminal using the symbol of the diode?

diode symbol and polarity with real diode photo LED Long Leg Polarity

I create a diagram for you to remember the polarity of the diode and the diode symbol. just refer to this image and understand the method I gave to you. Then you get the polarity of the diode easily.

how to get polarity in diode symbols polarity diode symbols

I hope you can understand the concept that I try to explain. Try to thinks like this. The arrowhead point to the direction that can flow the current through the diode. Another side current will block by the diode. Okay, this is enough about the diodes. Now we move to the LEDs. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

LEDs (LED Long Leg Polarity)

You already know LED is one type of diode. We can use the LED as a diode. It will allow flowing the current only one direction. As I mentioned earlier, LED has positive and negative terminals. I hope now you can identify these terminals. There is only one different behaviour to different LED from the diode. That is LED can convert the electrical energy to the Light energy. That’s why we call this kind of diode as “Light Emitting Diode”. LED emits the light when the current flowing through it.

Symbol of the LED

LED long leg polarity with the symbol

Here you can see all of the polarity information in one image. Save it, It’s important for you. In the symbol, we have the same kind of symbol like a diode and additionally, two arrows pointed out from the symbol. It indicates this diode (LED) can emit the light. Also, LED can emit light only when the current passing through it. As one kind of diode, there are two states in this LED (forward biasing and reverse biasing). So the LED only emit light when it was in forwarding bias. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

LED forward bias and reverse bias circuit LED bias how to connect LED to the circuit

Okay, now I hope you have all the basic knowledge about LED. If you have any kind of doubt please comment here. I will reply as soon as possible. Also, don’t forget to give feedback about my article and share with your friends. (LED Long Leg Polarity)

You can find here about 9v battery and led circuit and visit CircuitManiac to get more article like this. Thank you… 🙂

9v battery and led circuit-Simple LED Circuit

I know you are new to the electronic field. Also, I guest you burn a few LEDs at this movement (haha). Do you want to know why? Okay then, stick to my article. I will explain how to connect LEDs correctly and also what is the reasons you burn your LEDs. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

First of all, we connect the circuit now, after that you can read what is the theory behind all these things as your interest. All of these theories are explained at the end part of this article. Okay let’s go to the article but I recommend reading the theory part first and after reading these things.

What do we need?

simple led circuit components 9v battery 3v battery 1.5v battery LEDs resistors wires
  • LEDs
    • any colour of the LED
  • Resistors
    • 10, 390, 470, 560 ohms
  • Battery
    • 3v, 6v, 9v, or 12v
  • wires
    • normal circuit wires

We have two terminals in LED, a longer one for the positive terminal and a shorter one for the negative terminal.

Simple led circuit: 1.5v battery

Do you have a 1.5 V battery? okay then, find another 1.5 V battery. Because LED needs a minimum of 1.8 V to operate, therefore, you can’t operate a LED using a single 1.5 V battery. (1.5 < 1.8)

Simple led circuit: 3v battery with 10 ohms resistor

3v battery and led circuit

Okay, here is the simple 3 V LED circuit diagram and the Example circuit that I made for you. First, you can find 3 V battery or get two 1.5 V battery and connect them with serial way like the diagram and also use 10 ohms resistor to protect the LED but it was not necessary. always remember that the longest pin in LED is for positive (+) and a shorter one for negative (+). I hope you can understand this and also please read the Theory part of this article which is in the end part of this article for more information.

Simple led circuit: 6v battery with 390 ohms resistor

LED, 390 ohms resistor 6 v diagram

Here you can see the circuit diagram and also you can use four 1.5 v batteries or one 6 v battery with this circuit. The 390 ohms resistor is the most important component in this circuit and also if you forget to connect this to the circuit then surely your LED will burn. You have to read the final heading (Theory) of this article to get more knowledge. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

9v battery and LED circuit with 470 ohms resistor

9v battery and led with 470 ohms resistor diagram

Here are my 9v battery and led circuit with a 470 ohms resistor. Also, You can see positive and (+) and negative (-) terminals are marked in the 9V Battery. Also now you know the positive (+) terminal is the longest pin and negative (-) terminal is the shorter pin in the LED. For more information, continue reading this article and also you can get all the knowledge about these LEDs, Resistors, and Batteries. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

how to connect led lights to car battery (12 v battery with 560 ohms)

LED with 12v diagram

Here you can see, this diagram shows how to connect a LED with a Car Battery (12). You have to use 560 ohms resistor to connect with this circuit and also you can refer more with this article. (Read the theory part of this article which is in the last) (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)


Hi there, Welcome to the boring part of this article and also Please refer to this part completely I’m sure you will get something from here. Don’t forget to comment on this article and also give your idea and point out the topics that I missed here. 🙂

I hope you have a battery and some LEDs. When you connect your LED to the battery directly it will destroy immediately. Do you know normally LEDs are working in the 1.8 – 3.8 V voltage range? However, the range varies with the color of the LED. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

The following chart will help you to understand the LEDs operating voltage.

Color of LEDVoltage (V)Current (mA)
White3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Warm White3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Blue3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Red1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Green3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Yellow1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Orange1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Pink3.2 – 3.820 – 30
UV3.2 – 3.820 – 30
table 01 (9v battery and led circuit)

Okay, now take your battery and check it’s the voltage. Also It has been marked on the battery. It should be one of the following values: 1.5V, 3V, 6V, and 12V. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

LED with 1.5v battery

Let’s see what happens when you connect the LED directly with the 1.5V battery. Now you know LEDs operating voltage is between 1.8 and 3.8V. but when you supply 1.5V to the LED, which is lower than the minimum operating voltage of the LED. Also If the battery has 1.5V, you cannot get the perfect brightness from it. Then you realize that you can’t emit light from
LED using a 1.5V battery.

LED with 3v battery

Now let us see what happens when you connect the LED directly with a 3V battery. 3V is a value, which is in the operating voltage range of LED. Now again look at the “table 01” that I mentioned above. According to that, you can see white, blue, green, pink, UV needs a minimum of 3.2V to get maximum brightness. Then you can understand that you cannot operate these color LEDs using a 3V battery. However, according to “table 01” red, yellow and orange LEDs have 2.2V of maximum operating voltage. But 3V > 2.2V. Anyhow, we can see led can emit brighter light without burning when they connect into 3V. But it can shorter their life. Also To avoid this problem we can use resistors. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

LED with 6v, 9v, and 12v battery

Finally, let’s see what happen when we connect LED directly with 6V, 9V or 12V battery. I think now you have all the knowledge to imagine this situation. These voltages are higher than the maximum operating voltage (6V/9V/12V > 3.8V). Also, If we connect LED directly with these batteries immediately it will burn. To avoid this you need to use resistors. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)


Now let’s see what is the resistor. The resistor is a very important component in electronics. The resistor is used to block the current through a circuit and then reduce the voltage of the component that we need. Also, Resistors can connect series or parallel with the circuit according to our requirements. When it comes to the LED, resistors are connected series with LEDs. Also, The value of the resistor can be calculated using the color code. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

Let’s see about the circuits

You can scroll up and see the relevant circuit diagram that I provided in with the related title.

3V basic LED circuit

Let’s see how we can connect LED with a 3-volt battery. Also If you are using Red, Yellow or Orange color LEDs, you need to connect it through 10 ohms resistor.

6V basic LED circuit

If you are using red, yellow or orange color LEDs, then connect the LED through 210Ω resistor. Also If the LED has a different color (except red, yellow and orange) we use 140Ω resistor series with the LED.

9V basic LED circuit

If you are using red, yellow or orange color LEDs, also you need to use a 360Ω resistor with LED. Or if you use a different color than above use 290Ω resistor to protect your LED.

12V basic LED circuit

If the LED has red, yellow or orange use 510Ω resistor series with the LED and also if LED has different colors use 440Ω resistor. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

Okay, I think you get something from this article. now you can give feedback for my article. Click here to read more article in my site and also you can refer more here. Thank you…

What is an Arduino?

Arduino is a simple programmable Circuit board, just like a small computer. You can program this to input data, process data and also get output from it or perform some action as output. Arduino is an open hardware development device, therefore you can program and create whatever you want it’s free. and We can make simple color light Patterns to complex Robots using this Arduino.

Arduino board

This is my Arduino nano board, And also you can buy different models of Arduinos. Like Arduino Mega, UNO, nano, pro mini, also, etc. But I recommend using UNO or Nano as a beginner.

What are the components of this board?

atmel mega 328p IC arduino board

This is the main part of the Arduino board, The Atmel chip. this is nano and also it has Atmel mega 328p chip as the main IC. You can see Different kinds of Atmel chips in different Arduino boards. Let’s see about that.

Atmel chip (Processor)Arduino BoardMemory (RAM)Digital Pins (I/O)Analog Pins (I/O)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Uno, nano, pro mini,…2 KB SRAM, 32 KB flash146 (6/0)
(84 MHz)
Arduino Due96 KB SRAM, 512 KB flash5414 (12/2)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Mega8 KB SRAM, 256 KB flash5416 (16/0)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Leonardo2.5 KB SRAM, 32 KB flash2012 (12/0)
Table of Arduino board types

Other components

components of arduino board

Let’s see about the components in this Arduino nano board. Also, This is the front side of the circuit. You can see here,

  1. Oscillator
    • This Oscillator generates 16 MHz frequency, Also That frequency helps to operate this Atmel Mega 328P chip. In different Atmel chips need a different value of frequencies. Also, All the values are shown in the table.
  2. Reset Button
    • This is a simple push-button, also You can press this to restart the program in this board.
  3. USB Mini-B Port
    • This port is used to connect this Arduino with your PC. also You can refer more to Wikipedia.
  4. LRD Indicators
    • Here you can see 4 lights, Also It indicates some information to the user. First and also Second lights indicate the serial communication of this Arduino board. Also, The third light indicates the power connection of the board. Forth light for the Testing purpose and also we can use it to get output from this board.

Also, Let’s see back side of the nano board,

3.3v regulator IC, serial communication IC
  1. Serial Communication IC
    • Atmel chip only can operate with serial signals, therefore This IC (CH340G) helps Atmel chip to Communicate with the PC. It converts USB data signals to serial data signals.
  2. 3.3V Regulator
    • This Arduino operates with 5V voltage. Sometimes we need 3.3V to connect some components with this board, In that case, we can get that 3.3V output from this regulator.

Arduino Nano pin diagram

arduino pin set, analog pins, digital pins, ground pins, reset pins, 5v pin, 3.3 v pin, 3.3v
  1. Digital Pins
    • We have 12 digital pins in nano. Also, we can use these pins to connect digital components. It can only operate with two-stages, in high stage pin has +5V voltage and also low stage pin has 0V voltage which is equal to the ground pin.
  2. Analog Pins
    • Here in Nano has 8 analog pins. Also, we can get analog readings through these pins. Also, It can vary between 0V to 5V.
  3. Reset Pins
    • There are two reset pins we have in nano. Also If we supply this pin to +5V voltage, the board will consider the same action as we press the reset button on the board. Also, It will restart the program in the Arduino.
  4. Ground Pins
    • Also, This is the 0V pin. We can use this pin when the components are connecting to this board and also we supply external power for this board.
  5. 5V Pin
    • Also Using this pin we can get +5V dc voltage from this board.
  6. 3.3V Pin
    • This pin is using the 3.3V regulator, Also we can get +3.3V output from this pin.

What is the difference between Arduino Nano and UNO?

What is the difference between Nano and UNO?

You can see here, when we compare these two UNO board is larger than Nano. But components in there are same. Also, Thay all are work with the same concept.

Also, I think now you are ready to program this board. You can see how to work with this in our next article. you can read more articles in our site and also you can refer more from here.

How to Build a Tesla Generator – HomeMade Tesla Coil

What is Tesla coil?

Nikola tesla

Tesla coil is a device that can transfer energy through space. It can transfer energy within a small distance. But the distance can be varied with the Tesla coil power. This is a similar theory which is using in the transformers. (tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Tesla coil was invented by Nicola Tesla. There are two coils in the Tesla coil (Primary coil and Secondary coil). When we supply the Low voltage and hi-frequency to the Secondary coil, the Primary coil will generate the hi voltage. Also, that voltage will create a capacitor between the top end and the bottom end of the Primary coil.

How to build a tesla generator?

What do we need?

  • magnetic Copper wire for Primary coil (recommend to use 28 gauge copper wire).
    • But I use a Toy motor to get copper wire. 🙂
Toy motor
DC Toy motor
inside toy motor
Toy motor magnetic coil
  • magnetic Copper wire for Secondary coil (recommend to use 22 gauge copper wire).
    • But I use a house wiring wire to get copper wire. 🙂
house wiring wire
house wiring wire
  • PVC Pipe
    • Recommend to use 2cm Diameter and 9cm Length pipe
PVC pipe
  • Transistor
    • 2N2222A
Transistor 2N2222A
  • Resistor
    • 22K Ohm
    • Color code: RED, RED, ORANGE, GOLD
resistor 22K Ohm
  • Battery (9V)
  • Cardboard
    • I used a piece of wood.
piece of wood

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Let’s make a simple stand for the Tesla coil

(Use your own method to make it.)

  • I found this piece of wood, but you can also use Cardboard Sheet.
piece of wood
  • Also I found this items, inside the lamp holder. I used it to attach wires and coil to the wood plate.
inside of the lamp holder
  • Also, i brought this jumper wires from eBay.
jumper wires
  • Now attach the wires to the plate
How to make a Tesla coil stand

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we make the secondary coil

Create the coil like this from the wire that we get from the house wiring wire.

Tesla secondary coil

Now we can complete the stand

  • Connect the secondary coil to the stand.

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we make the primary coil

  • Get the magnetic coil, that we got from the toy motor
Toy motor magnetic coil how to build a tesla generator
  • And the PVC pipe
PVC pipe
  • Then winde the coil 300-400 turns to the Pipe.
Primary coil of the tesla coil how to build a tesla generator

Now we attach the primary coil to the stand.

  • Glue the Primary coil to the stand, and take the bottom coil end to the other side of the stand through the hale.
how to build a tesla generator
Tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator
  • Now get the wire and connect it with bottom end of the coil.
    • Before connect the wire, burn the end of the coil.
Tesla coil wire connection how to build a tesla generator

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we can create the Circuit

Tesla coil Circuit diagram how to build a tesla generator

Now create the circuit using this circuit diagram. In my case, I create a temporary circuit using the Breadboard. this is not necessary, you can use PCB or Vero board directly.

Tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator

Now make sure the circuit is working.

Tesla coil testing circuit how to build a tesla generator
It’s working…

Okay, now we can go with the Vero board. This is the Vero board that I buy from eBay.

vero board circuit board how to build a tesla generator

And i cut the piece of the board.

Tesla coil circuit components how to build a tesla generator

Now connect the components to the vero board and solder it.

tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator

Complete the Tesla coil (How to build a tesla generator)

Connect the Primary and Secondary coils to the circuit.

Circuit connect how to build a tesla generator

Now complete the setup. 🙂

homemade Tesla coil how to build a tesla generator

I recommend watching my full youtube full guide video of how to build a tesla generator.

You can refer more in here and other articles from my site

how to build a tesla generator