9v battery and led circuit-Simple LED Circuit

I know you are new to the electronic field. Also, I guest you burn a few LEDs at this movement (haha). Do you want to know why? Okay then, stick to my article. I will explain how to connect LEDs correctly and also what is the reasons you burn your LEDs. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

First of all, we connect the circuit now, after that you can read what is the theory behind all these things as your interest. All of these theories are explained at the end part of this article. Okay let’s go to the article but I recommend reading the theory part first and after reading these things.

What do we need?

simple led circuit components 9v battery 3v battery 1.5v battery LEDs resistors wires
  • LEDs
    • any colour of the LED
  • Resistors
    • 10, 390, 470, 560 ohms
  • Battery
    • 3v, 6v, 9v, or 12v
  • wires
    • normal circuit wires

We have two terminals in LED, a longer one for the positive terminal and a shorter one for the negative terminal.

Simple led circuit: 1.5v battery

Do you have a 1.5 V battery? okay then, find another 1.5 V battery. Because LED needs a minimum of 1.8 V to operate, therefore, you can’t operate a LED using a single 1.5 V battery. (1.5 < 1.8)

Simple led circuit: 3v battery with 10 ohms resistor

3v battery and led circuit

Okay, here is the simple 3 V LED circuit diagram and the Example circuit that I made for you. First, you can find 3 V battery or get two 1.5 V battery and connect them with serial way like the diagram and also use 10 ohms resistor to protect the LED but it was not necessary. always remember that the longest pin in LED is for positive (+) and a shorter one for negative (+). I hope you can understand this and also please read the Theory part of this article which is in the end part of this article for more information.

Simple led circuit: 6v battery with 390 ohms resistor

LED, 390 ohms resistor 6 v diagram

Here you can see the circuit diagram and also you can use four 1.5 v batteries or one 6 v battery with this circuit. The 390 ohms resistor is the most important component in this circuit and also if you forget to connect this to the circuit then surely your LED will burn. You have to read the final heading (Theory) of this article to get more knowledge. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

9v battery and LED circuit with 470 ohms resistor

9v battery and led with 470 ohms resistor diagram

Here are my 9v battery and led circuit with a 470 ohms resistor. Also, You can see positive and (+) and negative (-) terminals are marked in the 9V Battery. Also now you know the positive (+) terminal is the longest pin and negative (-) terminal is the shorter pin in the LED. For more information, continue reading this article and also you can get all the knowledge about these LEDs, Resistors, and Batteries. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

how to connect led lights to car battery (12 v battery with 560 ohms)

LED with 12v diagram

Here you can see, this diagram shows how to connect a LED with a Car Battery (12). You have to use 560 ohms resistor to connect with this circuit and also you can refer more with this article. (Read the theory part of this article which is in the last) (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)


Hi there, Welcome to the boring part of this article and also Please refer to this part completely I’m sure you will get something from here. Don’t forget to comment on this article and also give your idea and point out the topics that I missed here. 🙂

I hope you have a battery and some LEDs. When you connect your LED to the battery directly it will destroy immediately. Do you know normally LEDs are working in the 1.8 – 3.8 V voltage range? However, the range varies with the color of the LED. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

The following chart will help you to understand the LEDs operating voltage.

Color of LEDVoltage (V)Current (mA)
White3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Warm White3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Blue3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Red1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Green3.2 – 3.820 – 30
Yellow1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Orange1.8 – 2.220 – 30
Pink3.2 – 3.820 – 30
UV3.2 – 3.820 – 30
table 01 (9v battery and led circuit)

Okay, now take your battery and check it’s the voltage. Also It has been marked on the battery. It should be one of the following values: 1.5V, 3V, 6V, and 12V. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

LED with 1.5v battery

Let’s see what happens when you connect the LED directly with the 1.5V battery. Now you know LEDs operating voltage is between 1.8 and 3.8V. but when you supply 1.5V to the LED, which is lower than the minimum operating voltage of the LED. Also If the battery has 1.5V, you cannot get the perfect brightness from it. Then you realize that you can’t emit light from
LED using a 1.5V battery.

LED with 3v battery

Now let us see what happens when you connect the LED directly with a 3V battery. 3V is a value, which is in the operating voltage range of LED. Now again look at the “table 01” that I mentioned above. According to that, you can see white, blue, green, pink, UV needs a minimum of 3.2V to get maximum brightness. Then you can understand that you cannot operate these color LEDs using a 3V battery. However, according to “table 01” red, yellow and orange LEDs have 2.2V of maximum operating voltage. But 3V > 2.2V. Anyhow, we can see led can emit brighter light without burning when they connect into 3V. But it can shorter their life. Also To avoid this problem we can use resistors. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

LED with 6v, 9v, and 12v battery

Finally, let’s see what happen when we connect LED directly with 6V, 9V or 12V battery. I think now you have all the knowledge to imagine this situation. These voltages are higher than the maximum operating voltage (6V/9V/12V > 3.8V). Also, If we connect LED directly with these batteries immediately it will burn. To avoid this you need to use resistors. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)


Now let’s see what is the resistor. The resistor is a very important component in electronics. The resistor is used to block the current through a circuit and then reduce the voltage of the component that we need. Also, Resistors can connect series or parallel with the circuit according to our requirements. When it comes to the LED, resistors are connected series with LEDs. Also, The value of the resistor can be calculated using the color code. (tags: Simple LED Circuit)

Let’s see about the circuits

You can scroll up and see the relevant circuit diagram that I provided in with the related title.

3V basic LED circuit

Let’s see how we can connect LED with a 3-volt battery. Also If you are using Red, Yellow or Orange color LEDs, you need to connect it through 10 ohms resistor.

6V basic LED circuit

If you are using red, yellow or orange color LEDs, then connect the LED through 210Ω resistor. Also If the LED has a different color (except red, yellow and orange) we use 140Ω resistor series with the LED.

9V basic LED circuit

If you are using red, yellow or orange color LEDs, also you need to use a 360Ω resistor with LED. Or if you use a different color than above use 290Ω resistor to protect your LED.

12V basic LED circuit

If the LED has red, yellow or orange use 510Ω resistor series with the LED and also if LED has different colors use 440Ω resistor. (tags: Simple LED Circuit, 9v battery and led circuit)

Okay, I think you get something from this article. now you can give feedback for my article. Click here to read more article in my site and also you can refer more here. Thank you…

What is an Arduino?

Arduino is a simple programmable Circuit board, just like a small computer. You can program this to input data, process data and also get output from it or perform some action as output. Arduino is an open hardware development device, therefore you can program and create whatever you want it’s free. and We can make simple color light Patterns to complex Robots using this Arduino.

Arduino board

This is my Arduino nano board, And also you can buy different models of Arduinos. Like Arduino Mega, UNO, nano, pro mini, also, etc. But I recommend using UNO or Nano as a beginner.

What are the components of this board?

atmel mega 328p IC arduino board

This is the main part of the Arduino board, The Atmel chip. this is nano and also it has Atmel mega 328p chip as the main IC. You can see Different kinds of Atmel chips in different Arduino boards. Let’s see about that.

Atmel chip (Processor)Arduino BoardMemory (RAM)Digital Pins (I/O)Analog Pins (I/O)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Uno, nano, pro mini,…2 KB SRAM, 32 KB flash146 (6/0)
(84 MHz)
Arduino Due96 KB SRAM, 512 KB flash5414 (12/2)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Mega8 KB SRAM, 256 KB flash5416 (16/0)
(16 MHz)
Arduino Leonardo2.5 KB SRAM, 32 KB flash2012 (12/0)
Table of Arduino board types

Other components

components of arduino board

Let’s see about the components in this Arduino nano board. Also, This is the front side of the circuit. You can see here,

  1. Oscillator
    • This Oscillator generates 16 MHz frequency, Also That frequency helps to operate this Atmel Mega 328P chip. In different Atmel chips need a different value of frequencies. Also, All the values are shown in the table.
  2. Reset Button
    • This is a simple push-button, also You can press this to restart the program in this board.
  3. USB Mini-B Port
    • This port is used to connect this Arduino with your PC. also You can refer more to Wikipedia.
  4. LRD Indicators
    • Here you can see 4 lights, Also It indicates some information to the user. First and also Second lights indicate the serial communication of this Arduino board. Also, The third light indicates the power connection of the board. Forth light for the Testing purpose and also we can use it to get output from this board.

Also, Let’s see back side of the nano board,

3.3v regulator IC, serial communication IC
  1. Serial Communication IC
    • Atmel chip only can operate with serial signals, therefore This IC (CH340G) helps Atmel chip to Communicate with the PC. It converts USB data signals to serial data signals.
  2. 3.3V Regulator
    • This Arduino operates with 5V voltage. Sometimes we need 3.3V to connect some components with this board, In that case, we can get that 3.3V output from this regulator.

Arduino Nano pin diagram

arduino pin set, analog pins, digital pins, ground pins, reset pins, 5v pin, 3.3 v pin, 3.3v
  1. Digital Pins
    • We have 12 digital pins in nano. Also, we can use these pins to connect digital components. It can only operate with two-stages, in high stage pin has +5V voltage and also low stage pin has 0V voltage which is equal to the ground pin.
  2. Analog Pins
    • Here in Nano has 8 analog pins. Also, we can get analog readings through these pins. Also, It can vary between 0V to 5V.
  3. Reset Pins
    • There are two reset pins we have in nano. Also If we supply this pin to +5V voltage, the board will consider the same action as we press the reset button on the board. Also, It will restart the program in the Arduino.
  4. Ground Pins
    • Also, This is the 0V pin. We can use this pin when the components are connecting to this board and also we supply external power for this board.
  5. 5V Pin
    • Also Using this pin we can get +5V dc voltage from this board.
  6. 3.3V Pin
    • This pin is using the 3.3V regulator, Also we can get +3.3V output from this pin.

What is the difference between Arduino Nano and UNO?

What is the difference between Nano and UNO?

You can see here, when we compare these two UNO board is larger than Nano. But components in there are same. Also, Thay all are work with the same concept.

Also, I think now you are ready to program this board. You can see how to work with this in our next article. you can read more articles in our phobia.tech site and also you can refer more from here.

How to Build a Tesla Generator – HomeMade Tesla Coil

What is Tesla coil?

Nikola tesla phobia.tech

Tesla coil is a device that can transfer energy through space. It can transfer energy within a small distance. But the distance can be varied with the Tesla coil power. This is a similar theory which is using in the transformers. (tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Tesla coil was invented by Nicola Tesla. There are two coils in the Tesla coil (Primary coil and Secondary coil). When we supply the Low voltage and hi-frequency to the Secondary coil, the Primary coil will generate the hi voltage. Also, that voltage will create a capacitor between the top end and the bottom end of the Primary coil.

How to build a tesla generator?

What do we need?

  • magnetic Copper wire for Primary coil (recommend to use 28 gauge copper wire).
    • But I use a Toy motor to get copper wire. 🙂
Toy motor
DC Toy motor
inside toy motor
Toy motor magnetic coil
  • magnetic Copper wire for Secondary coil (recommend to use 22 gauge copper wire).
    • But I use a house wiring wire to get copper wire. 🙂
house wiring wire
house wiring wire
  • PVC Pipe
    • Recommend to use 2cm Diameter and 9cm Length pipe
PVC pipe
  • Transistor
    • 2N2222A
Transistor 2N2222A
  • Resistor
    • 22K Ohm
    • Color code: RED, RED, ORANGE, GOLD
resistor 22K Ohm
  • Battery (9V)
  • Cardboard
    • I used a piece of wood.
piece of wood

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Let’s make a simple stand for the Tesla coil

(Use your own method to make it.)

  • I found this piece of wood, but you can also use Cardboard Sheet.
piece of wood
  • Also I found this items, inside the lamp holder. I used it to attach wires and coil to the wood plate.
inside of the lamp holder
  • Also, i brought this jumper wires from eBay.
jumper wires
  • Now attach the wires to the plate
How to make a Tesla coil stand

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we make the secondary coil

Create the coil like this from the wire that we get from the house wiring wire.

Tesla secondary coil

Now we can complete the stand

  • Connect the secondary coil to the stand.

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we make the primary coil

  • Get the magnetic coil, that we got from the toy motor
Toy motor magnetic coil how to build a tesla generator
  • And the PVC pipe
PVC pipe
  • Then winde the coil 300-400 turns to the Pipe.
Primary coil of the tesla coil how to build a tesla generator

Now we attach the primary coil to the stand.

  • Glue the Primary coil to the stand, and take the bottom coil end to the other side of the stand through the hale.
how to build a tesla generator
Tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator
  • Now get the wire and connect it with bottom end of the coil.
    • Before connect the wire, burn the end of the coil.
Tesla coil wire connection how to build a tesla generator

(tags: how to build a tesla generator)

Now we can create the Circuit

Tesla coil Circuit diagram how to build a tesla generator

Now create the circuit using this circuit diagram. In my case, I create a temporary circuit using the Breadboard. this is not necessary, you can use PCB or Vero board directly.

Tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator

Now make sure the circuit is working.

Tesla coil testing circuit how to build a tesla generator
It’s working…

Okay, now we can go with the Vero board. This is the Vero board that I buy from eBay.

vero board circuit board how to build a tesla generator

And i cut the piece of the board.

Tesla coil circuit components how to build a tesla generator

Now connect the components to the vero board and solder it.

tesla coil circuit how to build a tesla generator

Complete the Tesla coil (How to build a tesla generator)

Connect the Primary and Secondary coils to the circuit.

Circuit connect how to build a tesla generator

Now complete the setup. 🙂

homemade Tesla coil how to build a tesla generator

I recommend watching my full youtube full guide video of how to build a tesla generator.

You can refer more in here and other articles from my site phobia.tech.

how to build a tesla generator

Sony Xperia 5 is fit to pocket and more about Xperia 5

No combat, Sony company had entered the key race of the smartphone market. Their trump is Sony Xperia series. By comparing other companies in the smartphone market, Sony’s statistics are different from others. So, Sony Xperia 5 is also one of the results of their statistics for the targeted niche. Here’s their bit small smartphone which they think, will pit to pocket.

Let’s unbox

When designing the box, Sony company had not tried to show it is a small phone than their other phones. So, big is too bigger than the phone size. Phone size is 158 X 68 X 8.2 mm. it is only 164 grams in weight. It is 14 g loss of weight and 4mm thinner than Xperia 1. There are 18 W power delivery USB-C charger, USB-C to USB-C cable, USB-C to 3.55 mm adapter and 3.5mm earphones including the phone inside the box.

Display and design

It is a 6.1 inches OLED display covered with Gorilla Glass 6. This OLED display has a 21:9 Cinema Wide aspect ratio. But they had dropped down the display quality from Sony Xperia 1’s 4K HDR to 1080p quality for Xperia 5. However, by considering the display size of the Xperia 5, 1080p quality will not affect the displays shine. This is Sony’s small version of Xperia. But actually, it is a tiny bit taller than Galaxy S10 Plus.

Performance and battery

Sony Xperia 5 is powered by Android 9 pie. There is a Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 chipset with 6GB RAM capacity. There is a 128 Gb inbuild internal memory. This memory is common for all nowadays flagship smartphones. However, you can add an external micro SD card up to 1 TB. Sony Xperia 5’s battery is a 3,140 mAh Lithium-ion battery. It is less powerful than the Xperia 1. It available Xperia adaptive charging, stamina, and Ultra stamina mode as well. However, Sony had not added wireless charging facilities. It is a big defect of Sony phones by comparing it with other flagship mobile manufacturers.

Camera quality

Sony Xperia 5 is also a triple camera phone with 12 MP triple cameras. One camera is with a wide-angle lens, another with a telephoto lens and its third camera is with a Super-wide lens. Its selfie camera is an 8 MP camera. However, the triple camera setup is not magic for flagship mobiles and mid-range mobiles as well. Because some companies like Samsung, Huawei had launched quad-camera setups as well. Besides, they had forgotten AI camera mode, panorama mode, slow-motion video caption, and most of the other creative settings for photos and video recordings. Sony Xperia 5’s night mode is also not in an applicable quality. But it will support to get the best results in selfies and 4K videos with its best strength.

Price and availability

It priced between US$ 699 to US$ 799 in leading online stores. It is US$ 50 to US$ 150 cheaper than Sony Xperia 1. However, this is not a cheap price by comparing other flagship models. This is not the best price for all features packed inside the Sony Xperia 5. However, if you are a Sony lover who seeking a smaller version of Xperia 1, this is yours.

you can get more about Sony Xperia 5 and also you can see more here.

Sony Xperia 1 Specialties and the review

Sony was not in the race of manufacturing smartphones for a long time. But now they had entered the track against Samsung, Huawei and other companies who were in the race. So, what is the specialty of Sony’s new smartphones to enter the key race? Let’s going to get to know all about Sony’s Xperia 1 and its key features.

Sony Xperia 1 – Let’s unbox it

The main specialty of Sony Xperia 1 is its size. It is a super slim and super tall smartphone with 167 X 72 X 8.2 mm body size. But it is only 178 g in weight. The display is covered with Gorilla Glass 6. All ports and sub equipment which have to connect to the Smartphone comes with USB type C. They provide, 18W USB-c charger, USB-C to USB-C cable, USB-C to 3.5mm adapter and USB-C headphones inside the box.

Sony Xperia 1 – Display and design

Sony Xperia 1’s display size is 6.5 inches. It is a large and 4K HDR OLED display. But it is not a fit to frame display. However, it has a 21:9 Cinema Wide aspect ratio. It is good for getting a cinematic experience while watching any video. The display’s brightness is perfect. However, it is not all about you might ask of a phone. There is no notch, no punched hole, or edge to edge display. You can see the traditional look of smartphones with top and bottom lines aside from the display. There are only two colors for the phone as black and purple. You can choose the favorite color from those two colors.

Sony Xperia 1 – Performance and battery

Sony Xperia is powered by the Android 9 pie version. It is a Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 S0C processor which has 2.8 GHz octa-core, 7 nm processing power. Sony Xperia 1 has a 128GB inbuilt storage with 6GB RAM. This storage and power are well sufficient for best performances. There is a 3,330 mAh Lithium-ion battery. It is a bit small for a flagship mobile. And they not providing wireless charging as well. It is not good news about Sony Xperia 1 as a flagship mobile phone. And its battery life is limited to 12 hours to 14 hours with general usages such as video streaming and web browsing. But there is a fast-charging option for Xperia as, Sony’s Stamina mode.

camera quality

You can see triple cameras in the top center of the backside of the phone and one selfie camera the top line of the front. All rear cameras are 12 MP cameras. But their task is differing one to another. One camera is with a wide-angle lens, another with a telephoto lens and the rest is with the super-wide lens. The front camera is an 8 MP camera. Video quality is 4K HDR. Beyond this, the camera setup supports supper slow motion, AR effect, panorama, and other creative effects as well. So, the camera setup is similar to other flagship models. But there is no time-laps mode available.

Price and availability

It had priced between US$ 849 to US$ 949. Sony Xperia 1 is available in all leading online stores. However, this is not a cheap price for features packed inside the Xperia. However, if you are a totally Sony fan, it doesn’t matter.

you can get more about Sony Xperia 1 and also you can see more here.

Motorola Razr Latest Smart Flip Phone

The mobile phone was invented as a result of various advances in technology. Modern mobile phones are a collection of facilities. Motorola Razr is a new introduction of Motorola’s mobility. It is a foldable Android Smartphone. The unveiling ceremony of this Superb mobile phone was held in November this year, but still, it hasn’t been released to the market. According to the latest news, it will be released in 2020. The most special feature of this upcoming foldable mobile phone is that unlike the other foldable mobile phones which have to be folded vertically, Motorola Razr has to be Folded horizontally. Apart from that, it has many more attractive features.

Motorola Razr Comfortability

It fits the user’s palm and Pocket when being shut and the shape makes it look very elegant. “razr” is a sleek modern Smartphone, unlike any other mobile phone people, have seen so far in their lives. we can close razr both sides perfectly Flushed as it has the zero-gap hinge. It also has a tacky design that provides ultimate protection to the main display.

Motorola Razr is Easy to handle

It has a touch-enabled quick view display. By this you will be able to play music, capture Selfies, get notifications even without opening up your phone.

Motorola Razr has Duel Screens

These two screens display the same thing at the same time. you will be able to see everything you see on the quick view display on the larger view display when you flip it open. It will also show you the battery level, as well as the time.

Cinematic viewing

razr has a stunning Flexible display featuring cinema vision. It gives you the same ultra-wide dimensions in the film industry. when your mobile screen is being rotated and a movie is played.

How about its size?

It is not actually unwieldy or over long. The screen is of course about six point two inches in height, yet with its 21:9 ratio, the Screen can be also called narrow. The resolution of Motorola “razr” is actually two thousand one hundred and forty-two in height hundred and Seventy Six megapixels. The user can see, touch and reach! its apps in a second very easily with his thumb as Motorola LLC has bottom-loaded most of its apps as well as other essential controls.

Is it sturdy to open and close?

It is one of the most easily unfordable and closable mobile phones with a single hand. It does not make your fingers tired or aching. However, the first few days might be tiring your fingers. But after getting used, it is really easy. You can feel the tension of its hinge when you keep opening and closing it.

Can you see a crease?

A very narrow crease can be seen where the hinge is located. But it is not visible unless you look at it earnestly. Sometimes you will have to rub it to feel that a crease really exists.


Apart from the above information, the below information will also be important for its buyers to know. Motorola razor’s operating system Is Android TM g pie and it has a memory of 6 GB. Its main processor is Qualcomm Snapdragon 710, octa-core, 2.2 GHz. It has an internal storage capacity of one hundred and twenty-eight GBs.


Motorola razor gives you unlimited free photo storage. It backs up all your memories.

Water repellency

This mobile phone is designed in a way that resists spills, splashes or even little drops of sweat get inside. So you can make a call even in the rain without hesitation as it has a superbly enhanced water repellency.

you can get more about Motorola Razr and also you can see more here.